Neoclassicism, Romanticism & Realism

What are Neoclassicism, Romanticism and Realism?

Neoclassicism and Romanticism are two artistic periods that appeared in Europe during the 18th and first half of the 19th century.

  • Neoclassicism evolved as a reaction of society against the Baroque period, and was perceived as a way of rescuing from the past the styles of the classical periods (Ancient Greek and Roman Art Video), that's why buildings and sculptures have aspects in common with that era. These words can describe the characteristics of Neoclassicism: organised, controled, serious, perfect, simple, non religious, thoughtful. polite, realistic and calmed.

  • Romanticiscim came later by the hand of the French and the Industrial Revolution. We could say that Romanticism is in general words the opposite of Neoclassicism, it's: romantic, passionated, sensitive, emotional, imperfect, spontaneous, natural, ideal, heroical, exciting, active, complex, disorder, imaginative, fantastic.

  • Realism was a XIX century movement against the ideas of the Romanticism. Realism wants to represent things as they are, without artificial or imaginative items. It avoids idealistic, exotic or paradisiacal places.

What happened before, during and after Neoclassicism and Romanticism?

Before these artistic movements, Baroque and its extension Rococo had held a taste for exuberance and complexity, giving now way to the simpler and more rational forms of Neoclassicism.

  • Inventions:

    • The locomotive machine (Richard Trevithick)

    • The photography (Nicéphore Niepce)

Some of the most famous people of the age were:

    • Francisco de Goya a very important Spanish painter.

    • Antonio Canova, Italian sculptor.

    • Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn, composers of Classicism.

    • Ludwig van Beethoven, one of the greatest composers in history gives way to Romanticism.

    • Immanuel Kant a German philosopher.

    • George Washington, first president of the USA.

    • Napoléon Bonaparte, a French military and political leader.

As you could read in the introduction, the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution took place during these periods. Have a look at the videos to discover what happened. It was a very intense and passionate period!

Francisco de Goya

Goya was a Spanish painter and printmaker who evolved from Neoclassicism to Romanticism.

He was born in 1746 and died in 1828.

He is considered one of the most relevant Spanish artists with paintings like:

William Turner

Turner was an English Romanticist landscape painter.

He was born in 1775 and died in 1851

Among his most famous paintings are:

In class


  1. Romantic Light box: Watch Mati & Dada's video where they meet William Turner, then have a look at his most famous paintings in the description of his biography next to the video. ↑Up there↑ When finished, look at the presentation to discover which activity you are supposed to develop.

  2. Goya's BreakOutEDU: Make a research to get your personalised certificate.

  3. Photo Realism Project - School life: As you read in the top of the webpage, Realism wanted to represent things as they are. We are not genius that's way we can't draw realistic drawings but nowadays we have the best tool to make realistic productions: The camera. Have a look at this very interesting Photo Realism Project.

  4. Wire Palace: Cast-Iron Architecture (Video) can't be included in any of these periods (Neoclassicism, Romanticism or Realism) but it belongs to the same century, the 19th century. Learn more about this and discover the task in the presentation "Iron Architecture".

  5. Arc of Triumph: One of the most iconic monuments of Paris. Discover what's behind this massive masterpiece!

Photo Realism Project
Copia de The Arc of Triunph
Copia de Goya's life in video
Copia de Iron Architecture

Google Expeditions (Virtual 360º Tour)

Masterpieces of the 19th Century Art

Voluntary work

If you consider yourself as an artist and you love paper architecture here you have two awesome neoclassic mockups.

You don't have to build them during class time. Just at home or during your breaks (playground)

If you finish one of them:

  • You will receive a special certificate

  • We will exhibit your mockup in the hall of the school

  • We will take a photo of you and your mockup and it will be uploaded to Mirasur's Facebook page and to the MirArt webpage.

Who knows! Maybe you become a famous paper artist one day!